to adjust to surrounding condition, often by making changes.
a change in an organism that enables it to survive in a certain
the rapid development of many species from a single ancestral
change from a behavior or habit characteristic of the ancestral
group of plants or animals to a strikingly different pattern.
Hawaiian examples are carnivorous caterpillars, nectar-eating
finches, woody violets, flightless birds, and flightless insects.
brought into an area by humans, deliberately or by accident.
Synonyms include introduced, non-native, and exotic.
related to or growing about the tree line.
fresh water that has escaped through cracks in caprock, both
below sea level and on land.
of or relating to birds.
an infectious bird disease spread by mosquitoes. It infects a
wide range of birds in Hawai`i, has probably contributed to the
extinction of some native species, and limits the distribution
of other species to higher and drier forests. First reported
in Hawai`i in 1947.
capable of decaying and being absorbed by the environment.
the control of a plant or animal (pest) by the use of living
organisms (usually a predator, parasite, or disease o f the pest)
rather than chemical herbicides or pesticides.
the rich variety of genetic material, life forms, and ecological
roles represented by different species.
the plants and animals of an area.
in Hawai`i, wetland that usually forms in mountain areas of heavy
rainfall and poor drainage.
mixture of fresh and salt water.
grazing or eating tender shoots, twigs, and leaves of trees and
in ecology, overhead layer formed by leaves and branches of an
ecosystem's tallest plants.
consolidated coral, soil, clay, and rock fragments found on coastal
plains of some older islands. Caprock is relatively impermeable
so it retards the flow of groundwater to the sea.
an animal species management technique where male and female
individuals of the same species are captured, transferred to
a safe environment, and encouraged to reproduce so that their
offspring can be released to restored or improved habitat in
the wild. It is usually a final option employed for the most
critically endangered species.
weather conditions in a specific area over an extended period
plain formed by sediments deposited during ancient times when
sea levels were higher.
one of the island vegetation zones; area along the seashore.
organisms that first settle a new area.
a naturally occurring assemblage of plants and animals living
and interacting in a defined area. The same groups of species
also occur elsewhere, and the community is usually named for
dominant plants or animals or major physical components.
in ecology, to contend for the same, usually limited, resources.
the act or process of making denser or more compact; a reduction
to a denser form (as from water vapor to water).
wise use of natural resources to assure their continued availability.
planned effort to teach others about protecting, managing, and
caring for natural resources. Emphasis is less on nature study
than on ecological processes, politics, real-world problems and
decisions. Focuses on renewable natural resources (plants and
animals) and on key manageable resources (soil, water, air).
Sometimes used synonymously with environmental education.
almost extinct, with only a few remaining individuals of any
in reference to native plants, thorns, poisons, or scents that
repel grazing or browsing animals.
the process of clearing forests.
of reduced quality or standard; worn down by erosion.
in this context, the spread of organisms from one place to another.
changed or altered by animals, plants, natural forces and/or
a forest that has changed or been degraded due to human impact.
variety of forms or qualities.
in Hawai`i, a forest community of mixed grasses, shrubs and trees,
usually on the drier leeward sides of islands below 6,000 ft.
a community of living organisms including producers, consumers,
and decomposers and the environment they occupy.
in immediate danger of becoming extinct.
a species in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant
portion of its range. Both state and federal wildlife agencies
keep an official endangered species list which includes some,
though not all, of the species biologists consider endangered.
unique to an area; occurring naturally nowhere else on Earth.
a species unique to a given area.
all surroundings that have an influence on an organism.
planned teaching about all aspects of the environment including
preservation, threats, benefits, and dangers to humans. Includes
a plant that grows on another plant but does not derive nutrients
formed by wearing away.
the gradual wearing away of earth by water, wind and ice.
change over time of the genetic traits within a species.
no longer in existence; no longer living.
the dying out of a species.
an animal with domesticated ancestors that has returned to the
wild and is no longer dependent upon humans for survival.
plants stimulated to resprout or reproduce after a fire. Many
introduced grasses in Hawai`i are fire adapted, but most native
plants are not.
an area of land covered largely with trees. Forests are vital
parts of our global ecosystem supplying oxygen, habitat for wildlife,
timber and recreation areas.
in Hawai`i, government of private land or lands set aside by
the governor with the approval of the Department of Land & Natural
Resources as forest reservations for the purpose of enhancing
the water, habitat, aesthetics and productivity of forest lands.
products or services that forests provide, such as timber and
having to do with inherited characteristics, such as the color
of an animal's body or a plant's flower.
plants and decaying organic materials covering the ground.
water found beneath the Earth's surface.
the area where an animal or plant naturally lives and grows.
member of a subfamily of birds that is endemic to the Hawaiian
Islands. Honeycreepers provide perhaps the best example of avian
adaptive radiation in the world. Over half of the surviving species
are considered endangered, and many are confined to high elevations
where mosquitoes, which transmit avian malaria, are absent or
the offspring of two plants or animals of different races, breeds,
varieties, or species.
the ability to resist or overcome the effects of infection.
in nature, it is often a fast change caused by human activity
or natural disasters.
naturally occurring in one area, but not unique to that area.
a relationship of mutual need.
a close or dependent connection between organisms or between
an organism and its environment.
in this context, brought to an area by humans, either purposely
an animal that has no backbone.
set apart from others or alone
a high-altitude, fast-moving wind that blows from west to east
usually at middle and upper latitudes; occurs 30,000-40,000 feet
above sea level and moves approximately 120 miles/hour.
a particular manner of using land, such as for residences or
away from prevailing wind.
balance or harmony.
to take care of, preserve.
relatively moist; the intermediate area between wet and dry conditions.
the essentially uniform local climate of a small site or habitat.
a genetic change in an organism resulting in a new form that
can be inherited by its offspring.
in this context, species that first arrived in an area without
the assistance of humans. Includes endemic (found naturally only
in that area) and indigenous (found naturally in that area, but
also in other areas).
an area set aside for preservation of a representative sample
of natural communities for educational, scientific, and future
needs. These may also be called reserves, preserves, or sanctuaries
by different organizations, and in different countries.
interrelated groups of living organisms in a habitat.
species that were introduced to an area with the assistance of
humans. Not occurring naturally in an area.
family, related group, kin.
of, relating to, or derived from living organisms.
a plant or animal.
the condition of having a population so dense that environmental
organisms that first settle an area.
organism that transfers pollen from an anther to a stigma of
a flower, in the process of fertilization.
number of a particular species in a defined area.
moisture falling out of the atmosphere as rain, snow, fog, sleet
the killing of animals by other animals.
animal that lives by preying upon or eating other animals.
protection, as of natural resources; implies protection without
an area set aside for the protection and preservation of natural
resources, such as plants and animals; in Hawai`i, these areas
must usually be managed to prevent deterioration caused by introduced
plants and animals.
animals that are killed or eaten by other animals.
in Hawai`i, a forested area where rainfall is abundant, found
primarily on windward slopes between 2,000-6,000 ft. elevation.
replenishment of groundwater by downward movement of water.
the renewal of forest cover by seeding or planting.
able to be made new or replaced.
land set apart by the state or federal government for special
a cluster of leaves in close circles arising from a short stem.
water that flows along the surface of the Earth in streams, rivers,
ponds, lakes or as sheet-flow during a heavy rain.
a tropical or subtropical grassland with scattered trees and
shrubs, and drought-resistant undergrowth. In Hawai`i, usually
found on dry leeward sides of islands below 3,000 ft. elevation.
a young plant grown from a seed.
area with low, woody plants.
the formation of a new species through evolution.
basic category for classifying living things. A group of similar
individuals that can usually breed among themselves and produce
one of seven Hawaiian vegetation zones; this region is only found
on the islands of Maui and Hawai`i above 9,000 ft.
forest located between 6,000-9,000 ft. elevation where drifting
clouds create a wet, cool environment. Only the islands of Maui
and Hawai`i are high enough to support this zone.
water on the land surface such as in streams, rivers, ponds,
likely to become endangered.
in Hawai`i, winds blowing frequently from the northeast toward
on a worldwide basis, a broad vegetation type with high rainfall
(40-400+ inches/year) and high average temperatures. A few thousand
years ago the rain forest belt covered 14% of the earth's surface;
it may now occur on 7%, but contain over 50% of the earth's species.
Tropical rain forests are now being destroyed more rapidly than
any other vegetation type.
low growth on the floor of a forest, including seedlings and
saplings, shrubs and herbs.
forest that has not been significantly disturbed by the activities
of humans, where the original composition of flora and fauna
is essentially intact, and where processes such as nutrient and
water cycles and evolution are essentially unmodified by humans.
geographical area characterized by a particular plant or group
of plants growing in association.
an animal with a backbone, such as a mammal, fish, reptile or
open to attack or damage.
the cyclical movement of water between the air, land and sea.
the upper surface of groundwater.
a land area in which water drains to a particular body of water--can
be viewed as a giant "bathtub" in the terrain.
land with high soil moisture, such as swamps or marshes.
area set aside for the protection of certain species.
into or facing the prevailing wind.
an area marked by distinct physical conditions and populated
by distinct communities of organisms.